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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 8 (Group D Streptococci and Strep Bovis)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 8 (Group D Streptococci and Strep Bovis)

      Questions: Q. What is the other name of Group D streptococci? Q. Where are they normally found? Q. To which drug are they normally resistant? Q. What infections do they cause? Q. What is the basis of Lancefield classification? Q. Which Group D Strep. Are more resistant and can grow in hard environment? Q. Where is Strep Bovis found? Q. Which group of people is more susceptible to infections from Strep Bovis? Q. What disease do they cause in […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 7 (Group B Streptococci)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 7 (Group B Streptococci)

      Questions: Q. Where are Group B Streptococci normally Found? Q. Which Type of Hemolysis do Group B streptococci show? Q. What is Other Name for Group B streptococci? Q. Which age group does Group B streptococci most commonly infect? Q. How can Group B Streptococci be differentiated from Group A streptococci? Q. What is important pathogenic property of Group B streptococci? Q. When should pregnant women be screened for Group B streptococci? Q. What is the prophylaxis for patients […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 6 (Viridians and Group A streptococci)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 6 (Viridians and Group A streptococci)

      Questions: Q. What type of Hemolysis do viridians streptococci perform? Q. Strep viridians belong to which normal flora of body? Q. How can they be differentiated from S. pneumonia? Q. What diseases does Viridians Streptococci cause? Q. What is the other name of Group A streptococci? Q. What diseases does Group A streptococci cause? Q. Which sort of Antibodies are produced in Group A streptococci infection? Q. How can recent Group A streptococci infection be detected? Q. What are […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 5 (Strep. Epidermydis and Strep Pneumonia)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 5 (Strep. Epidermydis and Strep Pneumonia)

      Questions: Q. Where is Staph Epidermidis Found? Q. What does it infect? Q. What is the mechanism of infection? Q. How does Strep Pneumonia Appear? Q. What does Strep Pneumonia cause? Q. What are the most important associations of Strep Pneumonia? Answers: Q. Where is Staph Epidermidis Found? Component of normal skin flora. Q. What does it infect? Catheters, Prosthetic devices, Most common cause of contamination of blood cultures. Q. What is the mechanism of infection? Formation of adherent […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 4 (Alpha, Beta hemolytic and Staph Aureus)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 4 (Alpha, Beta hemolytic and Staph Aureus)

      Questions: Q. What are alpha hemolytic bacteria? Q. What are beta hemolytic bacteria? Q. How does Staph Aureus appear? Q. What is the virulence factor of Staph Aureus and how does it act? Q. What is the mechanism of Staph Aureus food poisoning? Q. What inflammatory diseases does Staph Aureus Cause? Q. What are Toxin Mediated diseases of Staph Aureus? Q. What is MRSA? Q. How does TSST act? Answers: Q. What are alpha hemolytic bacteria? Form green ring […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 3

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 3

    Questions: Q. How do Partial Hemolytic Streptococci appear? Q. Give example of Partial Hemolytic Streptococci? Q. Classify partial hemolytic streptococci? Q. How do Complete Hemolytic Streptococci appear? Q. Give example of complete hemolytic streptococci? Q. Classify Non Hemolytic Streptococci with examples? Answers: Q. How do Partial Hemolytic Streptococci appear? Green Q. Give example of Partial Hemolytic Streptococci? Strep. Pneumonia Strep. Viridians Q. Classify partial hemolytic streptococci? Optochin Sensitive Strep pneumonia (capsule) Optochin Resistant Strep Viridians Q. How do Complete Hemolytic […]

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  • Gram Stain and Classification of Bacteria 2

    Gram Stain and Classification of Bacteria 2

      Questions Q. Name the catalase positive cocci? Q. How do Catalase positive cocci look? Q. Classify the catalase negative cocci? Q. How do catalase negative cocci look? Q. Classify the Catalase Positive Cocci? Q. Classify the Coagulase Negative Cocci? Answers Q. Name the catalase positive cocci? Staphylococcus Q. How do Catalase positive cocci look? Clusters Q. Classify the catalase negative cocci? Partial Hemolysis (alpha) Complete hemolysis (beta) Non Hemolytic (gama) Q. How do catalase negative cocci look? Chains Q. […]

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  • Gram Stain and Classification of Bacteria 1

    Gram Stain and Classification of Bacteria 1

      Questions Q. How do you classify bacteria on basis of gram stain? Q. How do gram positives stain? Q. Classify the gram positive bacteria? Q. Classify the branching filamentous bacteria? Q. Classify the Cocci? Q. Give Examples of Rods? Answers Q. How do you classify bacteria on basis of gram stain? Gram Positive and Gram Negative Q. How do gram positives stain? They stain purple or blue with gram stain. Q. Classify the gram positive bacteria? Cocci Bacilli Branching […]

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  • What is the Conducting Zone of Respiratory Tree?

    What is the Conducting Zone of Respiratory Tree?

    Conducting zone of the respiratory tree consists of the large and small airways. The large airways consists of the nose, pharynx, trachea and bronchi. Small airways consists of bronchioles and terminal bronchioles.  

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  • Bacterial Growth Curve and Bacterial Genetics

    Bacterial Growth Curve and Bacterial Genetics

    Questions: Q. What are phases of Bacterial Growth Curve? Q. Define Transformation? Q. What do you mean by conjugation? Q. Define Transposition? Q. Enumerates types of Transduction? Q. What do you mean by Lysogeny? Answers: Q. What are phases of Bacterial Growth Curve? 1. Lag Phase 2. Log Phase 3. Stationary Phase 4. Death phase Q. Define Transformation? Ability to take up naked DNA (i.e., from cell lysis) from environment (also known as “competence” ). A feature of many bacteria, […]

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  • S. aureus and Endotoxin

    S. aureus and Endotoxin

      Questions: Q. What is the toxin of S. Aureus called? Q. What is the mechanism of action of S. Aureus toxin? Q. What are clinical manifestations of S. aureus infections? Q. Define Endotoxin? Q. What is the most important component of Endotoxin? Q. What is mechanism of Pathogenesis of Endotoxin? Answers: Q. What is the toxin of S. Aureus called? Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin Q. What is the mechanism of action of S. Aureus toxin? Bring MHC II and […]

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  • C. Perfiringens & Strep. Pyogenes

    C. Perfiringens & Strep. Pyogenes

      Questions: Q. What is the toxin of C. Perfiringens called? Q. What is the mechanism of action of C. Perfiringens toxin? Q. What are clinical manifestations of C. perfiringens infections? Q. What is the toxin of Strep. Pyogens called? Q. What is the mechanism of action of strep pyogens toxin? Q. What is the manifestation of Strep Pyogens infection?   Answers: Q. What is the toxin of C. Perfiringens called? Alpha toxin Q. What is the mechanism of action […]

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  • B. Pertusis, C. Tetani and C. Botulinm

    B. Pertusis, C. Tetani and C. Botulinm

      Questions: Q. What is the mechanism of Action of B. Pertusis toxin? Q. What diseases are caused by B. Pertusis? Q. What is the name of C. Tetani Toxin? Q. What disease is caused by C. Tetani? Q. What is the mechanism of action of Tetanus and Botulisim? Answers: Q. What is the mechanism of Action of B. Pertusis toxin? Increases cAMP by disabling Gi. Q. What diseases are caused by B. Pertusis? Whooping cough. Q. What is the […]

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  • ETEC, B.anthracis and V.Cholera

    ETEC, B.anthracis and V.Cholera

      Questions: Q. What are the toxins of ETEC called? Q. What are the mechanisms of actions of ETEC toxins? Q. What diseases are caused by ETEC? Q. What is the name of B. anthracis toxin? Q. What is the mechanism of B. anthracis toxin? Q. What is the mechanism of Cholera Toxin? Q. What diseases are caused by V. Chlorea?   Answers: Q. What are the toxins of ETEC called? Heat Labile and Heat Stable toxin. Q. What are […]

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  • C. Diphtheria, P. aureginosa, Shigella and EHEC

    C. Diphtheria, P. aureginosa, Shigella and EHEC

      Questions: Q. What is toxin of Cornybacterium Diphtheria called? Q. What are the clinical manifestations of cornybacterium diphtheria? Q. What is mechanism of action of C. Diphtheria and P. aureginosa toxin? Q. What is toxin of shigella called? Q. What is the mechanism of action of shigella toxin and EHEC toxin? Q. What diseases are caused by Shigella and EHEC? Answers: Q. What is toxin of Cornybacterium Diphtheria called? Diphtheria Toxin Q. What are the clinical manifestations of cornybacterium […]

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  • Exotoxin and Endotoxin

    Exotoxin and Endotoxin

      Questions: Q. What is the source of exotoxin and endotoxin? Q. What is the chemical structure of exotoxin and endotoxin? Q. Where are genes of exotoxin and endotoxin located? Q. Which is more toxic? Exotxin or endotoxin? Q. What is the mode of action of endotoxin? Q. Which is highly antigenic? Exotoxin or endotoxin? Q. For which toxin vaccine is available? Q. Which Toxin is stable to heat? Q. What are examples of exotoxin diseases? Q. What are examples […]

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  • Urease Positive Bugs, Pigments and Virulence Factors of Bacteria

    Urease Positive Bugs, Pigments and Virulence Factors of Bacteria

      Questions: Q. Name the urease positive organisms? Q. What is the color of pigment of A. Israeli? Q. What is the color of Pigment of S. Aureus? Q. What is the color of pigment of P. aureginosa? Q. What is the color of pigment of Serriatia marcecenses? Q. What is the importance of Protein A? Q. What is the importance of IgA protease? Q. What is importance of M protein? Answers: Q. Name the urease positive organisms? Cryptococcus, H. […]

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  • Catalase Positive Organisms and Vaccines

    Catalase Positive Organisms and Vaccines

      Questions: Q. How encapsulated bacteria can be identified? Q. Name some encapsulated bacteria? Q. What is the importance of capsule? Q. What is the role of spleen in diseases caused by encapsulated bacteria? Answers: Q. How encapsulated bacteria can be identified? The capsule swells with specific antisera. This is called quelling reaction. Q. Name some encapsulated bacteria? Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus infiuenzae type B , Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and group B Strep. Q. What is the […]

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