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  • Zoonosis 1

    Zoonosis 1

    Questions: Q. Which organism causes Cat Scratch Disease? Q. How is it transmitted? Q. Which organism causes Lyme Disease? Q. How is it transmitted? Q. Which Organism causes recurrent fever? Q. How is it transmitted? Q. Which organism causes undulant fever? Q. How is it Transmitted? Q. Which organism causes Psittacosis? Q. How is it transmitted? Answers: Q. Which organism causes Cat Scratch Disease? Bartonella Q. How is it transmitted? Cats Q. Which organism causes Lyme Disease? Borrelia burgdorferi Q. […]

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  • Syphillis

    Syphillis

      Questions: Q. Which organism Causes Syphilis? Q. What is primary syphilis? Q. What is secondary syphilis? Q. What is Tertiary Syphilis? Q. What is Congenital Syphilis? Q. What is Argyll Robertson Pupil? Q. In Which Conditions VDRL False Positives are seen? Q. What is Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction? Q. How is syphilis Treated? Answers: Q. Which organism Causes Syphilis? Treponema pallidum Q. What is primary syphilis? Localized disease presenting with painless chancre. Screen with VDRL and confirm diagnosis with FTA-ABS. Q. […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 19 (Y. Entercolitis, H. pylori, spirochetes, L. interrogans, Lyme Disease)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 19 (Y. Entercolitis, H. pylori, spirochetes, L. interrogans, Lyme Disease)

      Questions: Q. Give Salient Features of Y. entercolitis? Q. Give Salient features of H. pylori? Q. Give Salient features of spirochetes? Q. Give Salient features of Leptospira interrogans? Q. What is Lyme disease? Answers: Q. Give Salient Features of Y. entercolitis? Usually transmitted from pet feces (e.g., puppies), contaminated milk, or pork. Causes mesenteric adenitis that can mimic Crohn’s or appendicitis. Q. Give Salient features of H. pylori? Causes gastritis and up to 90% of duodenal ulcers. Risk factor […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 18 (S. typhi, Campylobacter Jejuni and V. Cholera)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 18 (S. typhi, Campylobacter Jejuni and V. Cholera)

      Questions: Q. Enumerate Salient Features of Shigella? Q. Which organism causes Typhoid fever? Q. What are characteristic features of Typhoid Fever? Q. Where does the organism live in chronic carrier state? Q. Enumerate salient features of campylobacter jejuni? Q. Enumerate salient features of Vibrio Chloera? Answers: Q. Enumerate Salient Features of Shigella? No flagella Cell to cell transmission ; no hematogenous spread Only reservoirs are humans and primates Does not produce hydrogen sulfide Antibiotics prolong excretion of organism in […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 17 (Klebisella & Salmonella)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 17 (Klebisella & Salmonella)

      Questions: Q. Where is Klebisella normally found? Q. How do its colonies look? Q. What is the typical color of sputum produced by Klebisella infection? Q. What diseases does Klebisella cause? Q. Which groups are most susceptible to Klebisella infection? Q. Enumerate Salient Features of Salmonella? Answers: Q. Where is Klebisella normally found? Intestinal Flora. Q. How do its colonies look? Very Mucoid colonies (caused by Polysaccharide Capsule) Q. What is the typical color of sputum produced by Klebisella […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 16 (E.Coli)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 16 (E.Coli)

      Questions: Q. What are E.Coli virulence factors? Q. What diseases do they cause? Q. How does EIEC cause disease? Q. What is the presentation of EIEC? Q. What is the name of ETEC toxin? Q. What disease does ETEC cause? Q. How does EPEC cause disease? Q. What disease does EPEC cause? Q. What is the most common serotype of EHEC? Q. What is Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome? Q. How does EHEC cause disease? Q. What is the difference between […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 15 (Pseudomonas)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 15 (Pseudomonas)

    Questions: Q. What diseases does Pseudomonas aeruginosa cause? Q. Give salient features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa? Q. What is the color of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pigment? Q. What is the particular odor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa? Q. What toxins are produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa? Q. How Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is treated? Q. In which diseases a Biofilm by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is seen? Answers: Q. What diseases does Pseudomonas aeruginosa cause? Wound and burn infections Pneumonia (especially in cystic fibrosis) Sepsis (black lesions on […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 14 (Leigonella)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 14 (Leigonella)

      Questions: Q. What is Legionnaire’s Disease? Q. Which organism is responsible for Legionnaire’s disease? Q. What is Pontiac Fever? Q. Give salient features of Leigonella pneumophilia? Q. How is it transmitted? Q. How can it be treated? Answers: Q. What is Legionnaire’s Disease? Severe pneumonia, fever, GI and CNS symptoms. Q. Which organism is responsible for Legionnaire’s disease? Leigonella Pneumophilia. Q. What is Pontiac Fever? Mild flu-like syndrome. Q. Give salient features of Leigonella pneumophilia? Gram-negative rod. Gram stains […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 13 (Neisseria and H. influenzae)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 13 (Neisseria and H. influenzae)

      Questions: Q. What are common features of Neisseria? Q. Give important features of Gonococci? Q. How is Gonococci Treated? Q. Give Important features of meningeococci? Q. How is meningeococci treated? Q. What diseases does Hemophilius Influenzae cause? Q. How is it transported? Q. Which type of Hemophilius causes most invasive disease? Q. On which Agar can H. influenzae be cultured? Q. What is treatment of Choice for H. influenzae infections? Q. What is vaccine for H. influenzae made of? […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 12 (Lactose Fermenting Enterics)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 12 (Lactose Fermenting Enterics)

      Questions: Q. How can we test for Lactose fermenting enteric bacteria? Q. What is the enzyme of Lactose fermenters? What is the action of this enzyme? Q. What are the examples of Lactose fermenting enteric bacteria? Q. What is the color of Lactose fermenters on EMB Agar? Q. What is the mechanism of resistance of Gram negative bugs to penicillin? Answers: Q. How can we test for Lactose fermenting enteric bacteria? Grow Pink colonies on MacConkey’s agar Q. What […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 11 (Gram Negatives General Classification)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 11 (Gram Negatives General Classification)

      Questions Q. How do gram negatives stain? Q. Classify the gram negative bacteria? Q. Classify the diplococci? Q. Give Examples of coccoid rods? Q. Classify the Rods? Q. Classify Oxidase +ve gram –ve bacteria? Answers Q. How do gram negatives stain? Pink Q. Classify the gram negative bacteria? Diplococci Coccoid Rods Rods Coma Shaped Q. Classify the diplococci? Maltose Fermenter (N. meningitides) Maltose non fermenter (N. gonorrhea) Q. Give Examples of coccoid rods? Haemophilus influenzae Pasteurella Brucella Bordetella pertussis […]

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  • Leprosy

    Leprosy

    Questions:   Q. Which organism causes Leprosy?   Q. What are the most common sites of Infection in leprosy?   Q. What is the reservoir of M. leprae in USA?   Q. What is the typical name of sensory loss in Leprosy?   Q. What are forms of Leprosy?   Q. How leprosy is treated?   Answers:   Q. Which organism causes Leprosy?   Mycobacterium Leprae   Q. What are the most common sites of Infection in leprosy?   Skin […]

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  • Diseases caused by Mycobacteria

    Diseases caused by Mycobacteria

      Questions: Q. What does Mycobacterium Tuberculosis cause? Q. What do Mycobacterium Kansii casue? Q. What do Mycobacterium avium cause? Q. What feature is common to all Mycobacteria? Q. What are the common TB Symptoms? Q. What is Cord Factor? What is its importance? Answers: Q. What does Mycobacterium Tuberculosis cause? Tuberculosis Q. What do Mycobacterium Kansii casue? Pulmonary TB like symptoms Q. What do Mycobacterium avium cause? Causes disseminated, non-TB disease in AIDS; (often resistant to multiple drugs) Q. […]

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  • A Brief Review of Tuberclosis

    A Brief Review of Tuberclosis

      Questions Q. In which type of people, primary tuberculosis is seen? Q. In which type of people, secondary tuberculosis is seen? Q. What is Ghon Complex? Q. Which part of lungs is preferred by mycobacterium and why? Q. What are outcomes of tuberculosis? Q. In which sites, extra pulmonary TB is seen? Q. What does PPD+ indicate? Q. What does PPD- indicate? Answers Q. In which type of people, primary tuberculosis is seen? Non immune host (usually children). Q. […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 10 (Listeria Monocytogens, Actinomyces & Nocradia)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 10 (Listeria Monocytogens, Actinomyces & Nocradia)

      Questions: Q. Give Important features of Listeria Monocytogens? Q. Give Important features of Nocradia? Q. Give Important features of Actinomyces? Answers: Q. Give Important features of Listeria Monocytogens? Facultative intracellular microbe; Acquired by ingestion of unpasteurized milk/cheese and deli meats or by vaginal transmission during birth. Form “actin rockets” by which they move from cell to cell. Characteristic tumbling motility. Can cause amnionitis, septicemia, and spontaneous abortion in pregnant women; granulomatosis, infantiseptica; neonatal meningitis; meningitis in immunocompromised patients; mild […]

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  • Bacterial Spores and Spore forming bacteria 2

    Bacterial Spores and Spore forming bacteria 2

      Questions: Q. What is the mechanism of pathogenesis of C. difficale? Q. Which organism causes Anthrax? Q. What is Cutaneous Anthrax? Q. What is Pulmonary Anthrax? Q. What is Wool sorter’s disease? Q. What are 2 toxins responsible for cutaneous anthrax? Q. How does Bacillus Cereus Cause Disease? Answers: Q. What is the mechanism of pathogenesis of C. difficale? Produces 2 toxins. Toxin A, enterotoxin, binds to the brush border of the gut. Toxin B, cytotoxin, destroys the cytoskeletal […]

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  • Bacterial Spores and Spore forming bacteria 1

    Bacterial Spores and Spore forming bacteria 1

    Questions: Q. What is the importance of Bacterial Spores? Q. Which Bacteria are spore forming? Q. Enumerate the members of Genus Clostridia? Q. Give Important Features of C. tetani? Q. How does C. Botulinum cause disease? Q. What is the mechanism of Pathogenesis of C. perfiringens? Answers: Q. What is the importance of Bacterial Spores? Some bacteria can form spores at the end of the stationary phase when nutrients are limited. Spores are highly resistant to heat and chemicals. Have […]

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  • Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 9 (C. Diphtheria)

    Gram Staining and Classification of Bacteria 9 (C. Diphtheria)

      Questions: Q. How does C. diphtheria cause diphtheria? Q. what are the symptoms of C. diphtheria? Q. How is C. diphtheria infection diagnosed? Q. How does colonies of C. diphtheria look on cystine-tellurite agar? Q. How can C. diphtheria be prevented? Answers: Q. How does C. diphtheria cause diphtheria? Causes d diphtheria via exotoxin encoded by beta-prophage. Potent exotoxin inhibits protein synthesis via ADP-ribosylation of EF-2. Q. what are the symptoms of C. diphtheria? Symptoms include pseudo membranous pharyngitis […]

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