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  • Parasitology 7- (STDs) Trichomonas Vaginalis

    Parasitology 7- (STDs) Trichomonas Vaginalis

      Questions: Q. What disease is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis? Q. What are its signs and symptoms? Q. How is Trichomonas vaginalis transmitted? Q. How is Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosed? Q. How is Trichomonas vaginalis infection treated? Answers: Q. What disease is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis? Vaginitis. Q. What are its symptoms? Foul-smelling, greenish discharge from vagina. Itching and burning in vagina. Q. How is Trichomonas vaginalis transmitted? Through sexual contact. Q. How is Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosed? Trophozites on wet mount. […]

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  • Parasitology 6- (Visceral infections) T. curzi and L. donovani

    Parasitology 6- (Visceral infections) T. curzi and L. donovani

      Questions: Q. What disease is caused by Trypanosoma curzi? Q. How is Trypanosoma curzi infection transmitted? Q. How is trypanosome curzi infection diagnosed? Q. How is Trypanosoma curzi infection treated? Q. What disease is caused by Leishmania donovani? Q. How is Leishmania donovani transmitted? Q. How is Leishmania donovani infection diagnosed? Q. How is Leishmania donovani infection treated? Answers: Q. What disease is caused by Trypanosoma curzi? Chagas’ disease: Dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus. Predominantly in South America. Q. How […]

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  • Parasitology 5- (hematologic infections) Babesia

    Parasitology 5- (hematologic infections) Babesia

      Questions: Q. Which diseases are caused by Babesia? Q. How is Babesia transmitted? Q. How is Babesia diagnosed? Q. How is Babesia infection treated? Answers: Q. Which diseases are caused by Babesia? Babesiosis Fever Hemolytic anemia Asplenia increases the risk of severe disease Q. How is Babesia transmitted? Ixodes tick Q. How is Babesia diagnosed? Blood smear (ring form) PCR (Maltase Cross) Q. How is Babesia infection treated? Atovaquinone + Azithromycin

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  • Parasitology 4- (Hematologic Infections) Plasmodium

    Parasitology 4- (Hematologic Infections) Plasmodium

      Questions: Q. What organisms are included in Plasmodium genus? Q. What are signs and symptoms of Malaria? Q. Which Type of Malaria is caused by P. Vivax/Ovale? Q. Which type of Malaria is caused by P. falciparum? Q. Which type of Malaria is caused by P. Malariae? Q. How is Plasmodium transmitted? Q. How is Malaria Diagnosed? Q. What is the treatment of malaria? Answers: Q. What organisms are included in Plasmodium genus? P. vivax P. ovale P. falciparum […]

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  • Parasitology 3- Naegleria fowleri  & Trypanosomes

    Parasitology 3- Naegleria fowleri & Trypanosomes

      Questions: Q. What diseases are caused by Naegleria fowleri? Q. How is Naegleria fowleri transmitted? Q. How is Naegleria fowleri diagnosed? Q. How do you treat Naegleria fowleri infection? Q. What diseases are caused by Trypanosomes? Q. How are trypanosomes transmitted? Q. How is trypanosome infection diagnosed? Q. How is trypanosome infection treated? Answers: Q. What diseases are caused by Naegleria fowleri? Rapidly fatal meningeoencephlitis. Q. How is Naegleria fowleri transmitted? Swimming in Freshwater laker. Naegleria fowleri enters via […]

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  • Parasitology 2-Cryptosporidium & T.gondii

    Parasitology 2-Cryptosporidium & T.gondii

      Questions: Q. What infections are caused by Cryptosporidium? Q. How is Cryptosporidium transmitted? Q. How is Cryptosporidium infection diagnosed? Q. How is Cryptosporidium infection treated? Q. What infections are caused by Toxoplasma gondii? Q. How is Toxoplasma gondii transmitted? Q. How is Toxoplasma Gondii infections diagnosed? Q. How is Toxoplasma Gondii infection treated? Answers: Q. What infections are caused by Cryptosporidium? Severe Diarrhea in AIDS Mild (watery diarrhea) in immunocompletent Q. How is Cryptosporidium transmitted? Cysts in water. Q. […]

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  • Parasitology 1-G.lamblia & E.Histolytica

    Parasitology 1-G.lamblia & E.Histolytica

      Questions: Q. What disease is caused by Giardia Lamblia? Q. How is Giardia Lamblia Transmitted? Q. How is Giardia Lamblia diagnosed? Q. How is Giardia Lamblia infection treated? Q. What diseases are caused by Entamoeba histolytica? Q. How is E. Histolytica transmitted? Q. How is E. Histolytica Infection diagnosed? Q. How is E. Histolytica infection treated? Answers: Q. What disease is caused by Giardia Lamblia? Giardiasis: bloating, flatulence Foul-smelling, fatty diarrhea Often seen in campers/hikers Q. How is Giardia […]

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  • Fungi 6-P.Jervocii and Sporothrix schenckii

    Fungi 6-P.Jervocii and Sporothrix schenckii

      Questions: Q. Give Salient Features of P. Jervocii? Q. How do you treat P. Jervocii Infection? Q. When should the prophylaxis be started for P. jervocii? Q. What Diseases are caused by Sporothrix schenckii? Q. Give Salient features of Sporothrix schenckii? Q. How do you treat Sporothrix schenckii infection? Answers: Q. Give Salient Features of P. Jervocii? Causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) , a diffuse interstitial pneumonia. Yeast (originally classified as protozoan) . Inhaled. Most infections are asymptomatic. Immunosuppression (e.g., […]

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  • Fungi-5 Opportunistic Infections

    Fungi-5 Opportunistic Infections

      Opportunistic Fungal Infections Questions: Q. Give Salient Features of Candida Albicans? Q. How is Candida Albicans treated? Q. Give Salient Features of Aspergillus fumigatus? Q. Give Salient Features of Cryptococcus neoformans? Q. Give Salient features of Mucor & Rhizopus? Answers: Q. Give Salient Features of Candida Albicans? Systemic or superficial fungal infection. Oral and esophageal thrush in immunocompromised (neonates , steroids, diabetes, AIDS) Vulvovaginitis (diabetes, use of antibiotics), diaper rash, Endocarditis in IV drug users, Disseminated candidiasis , Chronic […]

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  • Fungi 4- Cutaneous Mycosis

    Fungi 4- Cutaneous Mycosis

      Questions: Q. Which organism causes Tinea versicolor? Q. What is the pathophysiology behind Tinea Versicolor? Q. What are ideal weather conditions for Tinea Versicolor? Q. How is Tinea Versicolor diagnosed in lab? Q.  How is Tinea Versicolor Treated? Q. What is Tinea Pedis? Q. What is Tinea Cruris? Q. What is Tinea Corporis? Q. What is Tinea Capitis? Q. What is Tinea Ungum? Q. Which Dermatophytes cause these diseases? Q. What is Lab Diagnosis of dermatophytes? Answers: Q. Which […]

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  • Fungi 3- Coccidioidomycosis & Paracoccidioidomycosis

    Fungi 3- Coccidioidomycosis & Paracoccidioidomycosis

      Questions: Q. What are endemic locations of Coccidioidomycosis? Q. What diseases are caused by Coccidioidomycosis? Q. When does infection rate of Coccidioidomycosis increase? Q. What are characteristic features of Coccidioidomycosis? Q. What are endemic locations of Paracoccidioidomycosis? Q. What are characteristic features of Paracoccidioidomycosis? Answers: Q. What are endemic locations of Coccidioidomycosis? Southwestern United States, California. Q. What diseases are caused by Coccidioidomycosis? Pneumonia Meningitis Q. When does infection rate of Coccidioidomycosis increase? After Earthquakes Q. What are characteristic […]

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  • Fungi 2-Histoplasmosis and Blastomycosis

    Fungi 2-Histoplasmosis and Blastomycosis

      Questions: Q. What are Endemic Locations of Histoplasma? Q. What are diagnostic Features of Histoplasmosis? Q. How does Histoplasmosis spread? Q. What diseases does Histoplasma cause? Q. What are endemic locations of Blastomycosis? Q. What diseases are caused by Blastomycosis? Q. What is characteristic feature of blastomycosis? Answers: Q. What are Endemic Locations of Histoplasma? Mississippi and Ohio River valleys Q. What are diagnostic Features of Histoplasmosis? Macrophage filled with Histoplasma (smaller than RBCs) Q. How does Histoplasmosis spread? […]

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  • Fungi 1. An Introduction

    Fungi 1. An Introduction

      Questions: Q. Which Fungi can grow in cold (20oC)? Q. Which Fungi can grow in hot climate (37oC)? Q. How do you treat local Fungal infections? Q. How do you treat systemic fungal infections? Q. What are similar features b/w Fungal Infections and Tuberculosis? Q. What are differentiating features b/w Fungal infections and Tuberculosis? Answers: Q. Which Fungi can grow in cold (20oC)? Mold Q. Which Fungi can grow in hot climate (37oC)? Yeast Q. How do you treat […]

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  • Mycoplasma Pneumonia

    Mycoplasma Pneumonia

    Questions: Q. What causes Atypical Walking Pneumonia? Q. What are the symptoms of atypical walking pneumonia? Q. Which organism grows on Eaton’s agar? Q. What is lab diagnosis of this organism? Q. What are typical features of this organism? Q. Which people are more susceptible to infection from this organism? Q. How do you treat this organism? Answers: Q. What causes Atypical Walking Pneumonia? Mycoplasma pneumonia Q. What are the symptoms of atypical walking pneumonia? insidious onset, headache, nonproductive cough, […]

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  • Chlamydiae

    Chlamydiae

      Questions: Q. Why are chlamydiae Obligate intracellular parasites? Q. What are 2 forms of Chlamydiae? Q. What is peculiar about Chlamydial cell wall? Q. How can chlamydiae be diagnosed in lab? Q. What diseases are Caused by C. trachomatis? Q. What diseases are casued by C. pneumonia and C. pisttaci? Q. How is Chlamydial infection treated? Q. What dieases are caused by Serotypes A, B & C? Q. What diseases are caused by Serotypes D-K? Q. What Diseases are […]

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  • Gardenalla Vaginalis & Rickettesia

    Gardenalla Vaginalis & Rickettesia

      Questions: Q. Enumerate Salient Features of Gardenalla Vaginalis? Q. How is Bacterial vaginosis Treated? Q. Which Rickettisial Diseases present with a rash? Q. Which Rickettisial diseases present without a rash? Q. What is the treatment of Rickettisial infections? Answers: Q. Enumerate Salient Features of Gardenalla Vaginalis? A pleomorphic, gram-variable rod that causes vaginosis presenting as a gray vaginal discharge with a fishy smell ; nonpainful. Associated with sexual activity, but not an STD. Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by overgrowth […]

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  • Zoonosis 3

    Zoonosis 3

      Questions: Q. Which organism causes leprosy and how is it transmitted?. Q. Which organism causes Cellulitis and Osteomyelitis and how is it transmitted? Q. Which organism causes Epidemic Typhus and how is it transmitted? Q. Which organism causes Rocky mountain Spotted Fever and how is it transmitted? Q. Which organism causes endemic typhus and how is it transmitted? Q. Which Organism causes Plague and how is it transmitted? Answers: Q. Which organism causes leprosy and how is it transmitted? […]

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  • Zoonosis 2

    Zoonosis 2

      Questions: Q. Which organism causes bloody diarrhea? Q. How is it transmitted? Q. Which organism causes Q fever? Q. How is it transmitted? Q. Which organism causes Ehrlichiosis & how is it transmitted? Q. Which organism causes Tularemia & how is it transmitted? Q. Which organism causes Leptospirosis and How is it transmitted? Answers: Q. Which organism causes bloody diarrhea? Campylobacter Jejuni Q. How is it transmitted? Puppies Live Stock Undercooked meat Q. Which organism causes Q fever? Coxiella […]

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