Rapid Review Flashcards – First Aid for the USMLE STEP 1


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  • "Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly, (also high D dimer, CHF without JVD)"
    Budd-Chiari syndrome
  • Achilles tendon xanthoma
    Familial hypercholesterolemia
  • "Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC"
    Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)
  • "Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints"
    Marfan's (fibrillin defect)
  • Athlete with polycythemia
    Erythropoietin injection
  • "Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss"
    Pott's (TB to the vertebrae)
  • "Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis"
  • Blue sclera
    Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Bluish line on gingiva
    Burton's line - lead poisoning
  • "Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis, (also increased hat size, fracture, increased alk phos)"
  • "Bounding pulses, diastolic hear murmur, head bobbing"
    Aortic regurg
  • "Caf-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules"
    "NF (1 = optic glimoas and pheo, 2 = acoustic Schwannomas)"
  • "Caf-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty"
    McCune-Albright syndome (G protein problem)
  • Calf pseudohypertrophy
    Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
  • Cherry-red spot on macula
    "Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick, central retinal artery occlusion"
  • "Chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI"
    Dressler's (autoimmune post-MI)
  • Child uses arms to stand up from squat
    Gower's sign (Duchenne's)
  • Child with fever develops red rash on face that spreads to body
    Slapped cheek - B19
  • "Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration"
  • "Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps"
    McArdle's (muscle phosphorylase deficiency)
  • Cold intolerance
  • "Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia"
    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (MS or stroke)
  • Continuous machinery heart murmur
  • Cutaneous/dermal edema due to CT expansion
  • Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
    Kaposi's sarcoma
  • "Deep, labored breathing / hyperventilation"
    "Kussmaul breathing, DKA"
  • "Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea"
    Pellagra (B3 / niacin deficiency)
  • "Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy"
    Wet beriberi (B1 / thiamine deficiency)
  • Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
    Pasteurella multocida (local cellulitis)
  • "Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis"
    Sjogren's syndrome
  • "Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis (smooth tongue), iron deficiency anemia"
    Plummer-Vinson syndrome
  • "Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints"
    Ehler-Danlos (type III collagen)
  • Enlarged. hard left supraclavicular node
    VIrchow's node (abdominal met)
  • "Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells"
    Sezary syndrome (cutaneous T cell lymphoma) or mycosis fungoides
  • Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
    Chvostek's sign (hypocalcemia)
  • "Fat, female, fertile, forty"
    Acute cholelithiasis (bile duct blockage by gallstones)
  • "Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphillis"
    Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)
  • "Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash, Koplick spots"
  • "Fever, night sweats, weight loss"
    B symptoms or TB
  • Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
    Peyronie's disease
  • "Gout, MR, self-mutilating behavior in a boy"
    "Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive)"
  • Green-yellow rings around peripheral iris
    Kayser-Fleischer rings (copper accumulation from Wilson's disease)
  • "Hamartomatous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth, feet and hands"
    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (genetic benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction; increased visceral cancer risk)
  • "Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms, crinkled cytoplasm"
    Gaucher's disease (glucocerebrosidase deficiency)
  • "Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts"
    Alport's syndrome (type IV collagen)
  • Hypercoagulability leading to thrombophlebitis
    Trousseau's sign (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)
  • "Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility"
    Kluver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala)
  • "HTN, hypoK, metabolic alkalosis"
    Conn's (primary hyperaldosteronism)
  • "Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia"
    Blue bloater (chronic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucous cells)
  • "Indurated, ulcerated genital lesion"
    Nonpainful = primary syphillis. Painful with exudate = chancroid
  • "Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration"
    Niemann-Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)
  • "Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly"
    "Cori's disease (debranching enzyme deficiency, no glycogenolysis) or Von Gierke's"
  • "Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect"
    Edward's syndrome (Trisomy 18)
  • "Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever"
    Charcot's triad (ascending cholangitis)
  • Keratin pearls
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Large rash with bull's eye appearance
    Erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite (Lyme)
  • Lucid interval after TBI
    Epidural hematoma (middle meningeal artery)
  • "Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells"
    Bruton's disease (X-linked agammaglobulinemia)
  • Mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa)
  • "Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumary teeth"
    Gardner's syndrome
  • Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing GN
    Wegner's (c-ANCA) and Goodpasture's (anti-GBM). Wegner's can also have upper airway involvement
  • "Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth. Possible clavicle fx, probably large for gestational age"
    Erb-Duchenne palsy (waiters tip hand; superior trunk brachial plexus injury)
  • "No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance"
    Sheehan's syndrome (pituitary infarction)
  • "Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, also bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia"
    Multiple sclerosis
  • Oscillating slow / fast breathing
    Cheyne-Stokes (central apnea from CHF or increased ICP)
  • "Painful blue fingers / toes, hemolytic anemia"
    "Cold agglutinin disease (autoimmune from Mycoplasma or mono, from IgM)"
  • "Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes"
    Raynaud's syndrome (vasospasm)
  • "Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles"
    Osler's node (infective endocarditis)
  • Painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles
    Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis)
  • Painless jaundice
    Cancer at head of pancreas obstructing bile duct
  • "Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain in a child"
    Henoch-Schonlein purpura (IgA vasculitis)
  • "Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors"
    MEN 1 (Wermer's)
  • "Pink complexion, dypnea, hyperventilation"
    "Pink puffer (emphysema: centricacinar (smoking), panacinar (a1AT deficiency))"
  • "Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances"
    Fanconi's syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)
  • "Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis"
    Horner's syndrome (usually with Pancoast tumor in apex of lung)
  • Pupil accommodates but doesn't react
    Argyll Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis)
  • "Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascend, following GI infection"
    Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Rash on palms and soles
    "Secondary syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, coxsackie A"
  • "Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE"
    "Job's syndrome (Hyper-IgE syndrome: Th cells fail to produce INF-g, abnormality in neutrophil chemotaxis)"
  • "Red ""current jelly"" sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients"
    Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • "Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola"
    Paget's disease of the breast
  • "Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs"
    "Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (C' mediated damage, lack of CD55/59)"
  • "Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma"
    von Hippel-Lindau diease
  • "Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability"
  • "Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile = cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance"
    Pompe's disease (lysosomal glucosidase deficiency)
  • Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
    Roth's spots (bacterial endocarditis)
  • Severe jaundice in neonate
    Crigler-Najjar syndrome (congenital unconj hyper bilirubinemia)
  • Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
    McBurney's sign (appendicitis)
  • "Short stature, increased incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia"
    Fanconi's anemia (genetic loss of DNA crosslink; may progress to AML)
  • Single palm crease
    Simian crease (Down's)
  • "Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, infertility"
    Kartagener's syndrome (dynein defect in cilia)
  • Skin hyperpigmentation
    Addison's (primary adrenocortical insufficiency causes increased ACTH and mSH production)
  • Slow progressive muscle weakness in boys
    Becker's muscular dystrophy (x-linked missense mutation in dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne's)
  • "Small, irregular red spots on buccal mucosa with blue-white centers"
    Koplik spots (measles; rubeola virus)
  • "Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals"
    Condylomata lata (secondary syphilis)
  • Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
    Bacterial endocarditis
  • Strawberry tongue
    "Scarlet fever, Kawasaki disease, TSS"
  • Rusty sputum
    Strep pneumo
  • Current jelly stool
  • "Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney"
    "Turner syndrome (X0, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema)"
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