Fungi-5 Opportunistic Infections

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fungi

 

Opportunistic Fungal Infections

Questions:

Q. Give Salient Features of Candida Albicans?

Q. How is Candida Albicans treated?

Q. Give Salient Features of Aspergillus fumigatus?

Q. Give Salient Features of Cryptococcus neoformans?

Q. Give Salient features of Mucor & Rhizopus?

Answers:

Q. Give Salient Features of Candida Albicans?

Systemic or superficial fungal infection.

  • Oral and esophageal thrush in immunocompromised (neonates , steroids, diabetes, AIDS)
  • Vulvovaginitis (diabetes, use of antibiotics),
  • diaper rash,
  • Endocarditis in IV drug users,
  • Disseminated candidiasis ,
  • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

Q. How is Candida Albicans treated?

Vaginal: topical azole

Oral/Esophageal: fluconazole or caspofungin

Systemic: fluconazole, amphotericin B, or caspofungin

Q. Give Salient Features of Aspergillus fumigatus?

  • Invasive aspergillosis, (especially in immunocompromised and those with chronic granulomatous disease).
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) : (with asthma or CF).
  • Aspergillomas in lung cavities(especially after TB infection) .
  • Some species of Aspergillus produce aflatoxins, which are associated with HCC.
  • Not Diamorphic

Q. Give Salient Features of Cryptococcus neoformans?

  • Cryptococcal meningitis, cryptococcosis.
  • Heavily encapsulated yeast. Not dimorphic.
  • Found in soil, pigeon droppings .
  • Acquired through inhalation with hematogenous dissemination to meninges.
  • Culture on Sabouraud’s agar.
  • Stains with India ink.
  • Latex agglutination test detects polysaccharide capsular antigen and is more specific.
  • Soap bubble” lesions in brain.

Q. Give Salient features of Mucor & Rhizopus?

  • Mucormycosis. Disease mostly in ketoacidotic diabetic and leukemic patients .
  • Fungi proliferate in blood vessel walls when there is excess ketone and glucose, penetrate cribriform plate, and enters brain.
  • Rhinocerebral , frontal lobe abscesses.
  • Headache, facial pain, black necrotic eschar on face ; may have cranial nerve involvement.

 

 

 
 
 

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